What are Movement Disorders?

Movement disorders are neurological disorders that show either an excess of movement or an absence of movement because of weakness or paralysis. Movement disorders are associated with changes in the brain cells that help us move. These brain cell changes can cause extra unwanted involuntary or excessive movements, called hyperkinesias. Other changes in brain cell function can cause a lack of automatic and purposeful movements, not related to weakness or spasticity, called hypokinesia. A complete medical history and careful thorough neurological examination are required to make an accurate diagnosis. Movement disorders, once correctly diagnosed, usually respond to treatment.

The field of movement disorders is one of the most active areas of neurology. Basic research has rapidly advanced the understanding of disease, particularly in the mechanisms of cell death, pharmacology of the dopamine system, motor physiology and molecular genetics. Movement disorders are closely related to many other areas within neurology and psychiatry, and its research tools include molecular biology, epidemiology, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and biochemistry. The field is characterized by great clinical complexity and therapeutic potential, and has emerged as one of the most interesting and challenging in all of medicine.

Types of Movement Disorders?